Horse Racing Systems: 5 That Work

Few bother to even look at the comment line for the race, let alone take the trouble to seek out and watch the replay of the race. With the BRIS pp’s you can use the Sire Production Factor in concert with the pedigree rating. Because speed figures have gained in popularity over the years, anyone following that system now would have trouble coming up with gas money for the ride home from the track.

Nunamaker reported that the inside post in dirt route races won at a 20% greater than expected rate, and lost only 10 cents on the dollar, much better than the track take. To the extent that most handicappers use pedigree at all, it’s usually to identify horses that may improve when switched to the turf, or those who may be expected to win as first time starters. In most case the public seems to take a horse’s last running line at face value. The inside post combined with early speed is a particularly potent combination, since the horse will not have to exert himself as much to gain his preferred position at the front of the pack.

How do we identify the best pedigree, then? If you’re using the DRF past performances, use the stud fee as a proxy for quality, and the Tomlinson figure to judge suitability for the distance and surface. It should go without saying that you should actually like the favorite’s chances after evaluating the race with your own handicapping.. One of the few anomalies turned up by Michael Nunamaker in his pioneering computer study “Modern Impact Values”, published in 1994, was that horses breaking from the inside post position in route races won more than their fair share of races, and were under-bet by the public. It must follow, therefore, that if we bet the best horse that has started at least twice, we stand an excellent chance of beating the takeout, particularly in races that have several first and second time starters.

Horse Racing System #3 – In maiden claiming races, bet the horse with the best pedigree. My own studies have shown a similar advantage for the inside post in routes.

Second, the very nature of the parimutuel system itself means that any profits to be made from following a particular set of rules will quickly be arbitraged away as the followers of that system drive down the odds of horses chosen by the system.

For as long as humans have bet on horse racing there have been system sellers trying to con the gullible into parting with their hard earned money with the lure of easy profits to be made on the sport of kings. The inside post in turf routes actually showed a small profit, but this was based on a small sample size and cannot be relied upon. This offers opportunity to more diligent players.

Horse Racing System #5 – Bet Horses breaking from the inside post in route races. This is another mistake that bettors make: in a race with a clear standout, many people give up on the win pool and bet their choice to place, thinking that they’ll get paid even if the favorite wins.

Horse Racing System #1 – In maiden races, bet the horse with the best last race speed figure that has had at least two career starts. The horse with the best combination of the two is the play.

However, just because systems won’t make you rich doesn’t mean there’s no place for them at all in a horseplayer’s arsenal. This is somewhat counter-intuitive since you’d expect that horses with good pedigrees that end up in the maiden claiming ranks probably can’t run at all. I was able to replicate this result in my own study of nearly 100,000 races conducted a decade later.

In the first place, the parimutuel takeout in horse racing is large (over 15%) and the mutuel pools are relatively efficient, so that even systems with a strong basis in reality can’t overcome the size of the takeout.

Look for comment lines like “bled”, “lost rider”, “clipped heels”, “stumbled”, “steadied”, “between horses”, “rank”, and “jumped shadows” that suggest that a horse’s last race was not indicative of its true ability. Thanks for reading, and see you in the winner’s circle.

Instead of blindly betting all horses breaking from the inside, you might use this to supplement your handicapping, paying particular attention to the inside horse, and betting it when you like the horse on other handicapping grounds. They will, however increase the chances of a profitable day at the races by ensuring that your wager dollars go where they have the best chance of success. This system takes advantage of one of the few glaring inefficiencies in the parimutuel pools, namely that first and second time starters are badly over-bet.

Looking for a dead simple horse racing system that will allow you to quit your job and make a living betting the horses in just 10 minutes a day? Good luck with that!

First time starters return only about 60 cents on the dollar, and second time starters are only a little better, returning less than 70 cents on the dollar. I’ve identified some of the most useful handicapping factors that have a proven history of doing much better than the track takeout and put them together with some simple rules that should make your trips to the racetrack more fun and profitable. Most people who love horse racing would be thrilled just to win a little more and lose a little less on their trips to the track.

In fact, pedigree does not generally offer wager value with one curious exception: well bred horses do surprisingly well in maiden claiming races. My study suggests that’s not the case.

Horse Racing System #4 – Bet low-priced favorites to place. Let me let you in on a little secret about these “magic formulas”. If the tote board suggests that the public is overlooking these mitigating circumstances, make your play.

In that spirit.

For instance, many speed figure handicappers reported making horse racing profits in the 60′s and 70′s simply by betting horses with the best last race speed figure. Just don’t expect to quit your day job.

The horse with the best last race speed figure (whether Beyer, BRIS, or Equibase) may not be the best horse in the race, but he’s probably not far off, so we can use that as a proxy for selection purposes.

None of these systems will make you rich, or even guarantee that you will make a profit. My computer studies of pedigree, based on nearly 100,000 races, suggest that using pedigree in that manner offers no advantage to the player.

This causes the favorite to be under bet in the place pool, leading to a profit opportunity for us to take advantage of by betting the favorite to place. None of them work.

Horse Racing System #2 – Bet horses that have an excuse for a poor performance in their last race

Expert Betting Tips For Sports Betting Good Results

Losing a handful of dollars in registration or sign up charge will be as huge a letdown as losing a huge selection of dollars parked inside your account would when a service cheats you.. The winners are that group of individuals who don’t place bets merely on guess operate or try their luck. They’ll see past outcomes, statistics, the kind book and a lot of other issues prior to drawing a conclusion. You might need to incur losses at instances but having a experienced service you will be in a position to maximize income and lessen the risk of creating a loss.

Are you currently are budding punter trying to earn money from on the net sports betting? On the internet sport betting is really serious business and there runs a higher risk of generating a loss so a better and informed position will improve your possibilities of producing a profit. A very good service is 1 that offers you a free of charge trail offer, that way you can test their services and when you are sure their solutions are what you’re seeking for then you definitely can go ahead and spend for it.

It truly is also not probable that employing the most beneficial bet tipsters service you can win every single time. That is certainly since the bookmarker doesn’t leave the door open from exactly where he will be within a loss making scenario. In the same time if the bookmarker is offering a cost then that bookmarker already inside a excellent position to create a healthier profit on the supply price tag. Naturally you may need to become completely sure with the service; a very good service or on line service with credible on the internet evaluations will serve as an excellent thrust to your plans. In the event you can obtain on the web testimonials for that website then that must inform you how well other users have located the services to become. Sports betting and betting tipster sites are there in abundance so you genuinely must careful about applying them. Winners are a group of men and women who do their homework the challenging way. The authorities will usually possess the finest chance at winning.

Persons looking to make use of sports betting tipster service should really do a thorough check up on the website’s service. Get additional details about canli bahis oranlari http://canlibahis.info

You would never ever have heard a bookie losing cash, it can be normally the punter that wins or loses as well as the bookie stands to earn in each situations. Thus it will not matter which soccer team wins or which player scores the purpose or which horse crosses the post 1st the bookmaker will in turn a superb profit from all those that placed incorrect bets and pay only individuals who got it ideal.

In the real globe scenario there are actually a huge selection of losers as against a handful of winners. A very good qualified tipsters web site having a established track record of accomplishment and verified tipster profiles would go a long way in helping you develop extended lasting success. Based on your analysis you could decide to join or appear for other sites, this could in the end be the distinction involving accomplishment and failure.

In recent times it is not so tough getting reputable betting strategies. Your selection must not be based on your liking for a particular sport or sportsperson

The Best Casinos for Blackjack in Las Vegas

What is the strip? It’s about a 4 mile stretch of a street on Las Vegas Boulevard South. Some casinos use 8 decks and a shuffling machine to increase the house odds (or casino’s odds) and to make card counting almost impossible. This means if you hit a blackjack and your bet is $10 you’ll be paid $15 at a table with a 3:2 payout, but you’d win just $12 at a 6:5 paying table.

Player’s cards are cards offered at many casinos to gamblers who want to earn perks when they play.

If you’ve heard of Las Vegas, then I’d bet you’ve heard of the strip. Many tourists never leave it during their stay.

The odds in blackjack vary as much by casino as they do by table. With small decks, you’ll probably be seeing the better odds of 3:2, more and more, you’ll start to see rates of 6:5. Depending on how much money you play with, you can earn quite a bit of complimentary gifts and discounts at restaurants, stores and theatres.

. Other Las Vegas casinos play with just one deck with small bets to attract players. It has one of the highest concentrations of quality casinos and entertainment in the city

10 Websites and Games Like Club Penguin (Virtual Worlds)

If you have any additional favourite games please don’t hesitate to share them in the comment section at the end of the page.

This flood of games into the market has produced some real great games like Club Penguin but also many poor game experiences and even some fantastic ones that have closed down (such as ToonTown Online and Star86) which can also be frustrating after having invested so much time in a game that you love.

There are many websites and games like Club Penguin that offer a great experience for children, teenagers and even their parents..

While Club Penguin was one of the first really successful games in this space there has been a huge increase in the number of virtual worlds targeted at tweens over the past few years as companies quickly realise it is a huge (and growing market).

If you are a fan of Club Penguin looking for another fun virtual world to play or a parent seeking information about other safe online games like Club Penguin for your child (or children) then this page will prove to be an invaluable resource.

I originally put this list together for a family friend and decided to share it here so other fans of the Club Penguin universe can find similar experiences that are both fun, friendly and safe

AIDS Patient Zero – InfoBarrel

Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture.  He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough. 

Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31.  His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.

The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old).  He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened.  His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically.  The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised.  He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ).  His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”

Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick.  He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”.  But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious.  He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him.  His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice.  His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.

Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. . many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”

Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.

AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans.  IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive. 

He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well.  In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen.  It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame).  The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort.  It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).

Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.

Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio.  He came to the US in 1927.  He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan.  He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue.  Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case.  Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS?  “You bet .

The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning.  Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”)  for “the beginning”.  It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).

The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.

Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities.  His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.

Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54.  This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world.  Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there.  Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity.  No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54.  Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies. 

Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim.  As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.

Omega Man

First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners.  After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed.  This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest.  When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer.  Maybe you’ll get it.”

AIDS now had a face.

The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version.  One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871.  HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922.  Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.

In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.

Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless.  At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).. Louis, Missouri.  His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George.  Rayford was described as slender.  His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness. 

This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject.  One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case.  Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America. 

One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America.  As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate.  As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount.  Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men. 

Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind.  As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID).  This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system.  It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims.  It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.

Author’s note

Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”. 

He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active.  His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr.  Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.

Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people. 

This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV. 

Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there.  She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill.  Her symptoms confounded her colleagues.  She died in December 1977.  Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive.  During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.

As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida.  It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history. 

By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.

He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time).  [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]

The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”.  They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American.  They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”.  More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.

Less Than Zero

AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Louis. 

In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.

The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men.  These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials.  As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male.  World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too. 

And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history. 

The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture.  Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island.  Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away ”in season”. 

The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene.  The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.

He started out as a hairdresser.  Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual.  He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job.  He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada.  This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters.  In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.

Good investigative work requires dogged determination.  Running an enigma to ground can take years. 

The airline industry developed glamour.  The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless.  These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime.  Therefore, they must be promiscuous.  The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring.  Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses.  The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day).  Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.

Gay men realized the danger.  Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent.  Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others.  They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men.  Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the ”Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).

***

Dr. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away.  In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved.  Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected.  This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not).  Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.

The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”.  Certainly, they were paid less.  There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.

Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem.  And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.

In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants.  They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality.  “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.

On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.

There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry.  At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.

From a front-line perspective

Air Canada

False Positive

The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in.  Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.

Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.

The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within.  Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself. 

The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants.  This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service.  Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press.  It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role. . Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples.  In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive

The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS.  That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.

Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did.  This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed. 

Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams.  It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse).  One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background).  He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him.  To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.

Gateway to the West

As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active.  Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic.  His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body. 

By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor.  A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay). 

His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling.  Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs.  Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate. 

Mr.   The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen.  He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”.  He also had shortness of breath.  His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems).  This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.

But, it doesn’t end there. 

Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS).  In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died. 

In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease.  In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa.  He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea.  He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa.  In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections.  By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver. 

Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation.  In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues.  Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected.  Further confirmation testing in 1989  proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership.  I truly appreciate it.

Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well.  Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.

Update note:Dr. 1952-1953).

The Road to Zero

Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep). 

Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards.  Stewardesses, however, were very desirable.  They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man.  In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.

Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research.  It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted.  Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS. 

Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966.  Other strains have been isolated as well.  As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much). 

For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust. 

Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953.  His life was on a collision course with history.  In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active.  [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown.  He may have been bisexual.] 

Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses.  He was blond, voluble, and open.  Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls.  He took on whatever he felt like.  As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts.  [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.] 

This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.

Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary.  What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously.  It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966. 

A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances.  He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect.  In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim.  Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa).  Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.

Ground Zero

In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived.  Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities.  Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men.  They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco.  [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).

Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either - somebody had to give it to him in the first place.

The End of Days was seemingly at hand.

He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.

In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died.  In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive. 

This makes little sense. 

There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient "O" (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word "Omega" for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?).  Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the "O" (for "?"), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS' source as "Patient 0" ["zero"] instead.

“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”

Dugas remained unrepentant.  He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually.  His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex.  Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.”  His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves.  They know what’s going on out there.  They’ve heard about this disease.”  The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer.  I’m going to die and so are you.” 

A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though.  Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests.  This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”.  It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly.  Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.

Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”.  Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors.  An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh).  [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.] 

Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America. 

Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment.  [Rubell later died of AIDS.]

Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.  

Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. . Memory Elvin Lewis

Dr.  

Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977. . It was so unusual at the time

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As the grand soccer world cup 200 is gearing near, players have great opportunity to try hand in making lucrative bets. It is essential to make a strong by soccer betting,you do not easily lose your calm and play with utmost patience.

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PGA golf betting odds for players to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational

Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1

Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. He’s a big threat this week to win.

Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds

Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each

Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.

Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.

5. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. Nuff said. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.

At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each

Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1

T-7. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1

At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.

Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.

6. Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.

Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.

Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.

4. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.

1. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.

Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!

Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds

The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each

Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.

T-13. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.

Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.

T-19. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1

3. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five. Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each

David Toms won this tournament in 2011. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?

T-17. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Adam Scott – 11 to 1

Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each

The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).

Notables

2. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1

Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.

T-11

Las Vegas Casinos – InfoBarrel

You can also walk if you are not lazy. Many people now days consider the New York New

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play there.

Image Credit: (Flickr/davideferro.net) (Flickr/Chad Davis)

Luxor Hotel and Casino

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino has

some lower limit tables such as $2.00 Blackjack. If you want a tattoo they have a shop inside.

There are many casinos in Las Vegas

Nevada. It is by the Circus Circus Hotel and Casino.

Slots-A-Fun Casino has many low limit table games including $1.00

blackjack. At least they

have not changed the sweet shape f the pyramid.

. If it is summertime and over 100 degrees I highly suggest you

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found for the Las Vegas Strip hotels and casinos during non peak

The Palms Casino and Resort is where

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reason the Luxor Hotel and Casino is so cool is because of the huge

light beaming out from the top of the Luxor into space. Fremont Street. The

parking garage at the New York New York Hotel and Casino is my

favorite ride. Downtown Las Vegas is much funner and generally cheaper then staying on the

Vegas Strip. You are right down by the

Fremont Light Show and all of the casinos and sites located in the

downtown area of historic Las Vegas. On a Sunday when there are only a few cars in there

you can drive your car to the top. The Palms Casino and Resort is a

favorite of Britney Spears when she visits Las Vegas. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino is really cool for two reasons. It is modeled after the gr

eat pyramids of Egypt. I wonder when

Britney plays blackjack and wants another card if she tells the

Blackjack dealer “Hit Me Baby One More Time.” After all of

Britney’s kids I think she was hit again.

7-11

The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino is

located in my favorite part of Las Vegas. $2.00 Blackjack is

only available occasionally. The 7-11 stores are not considered a casino to

most people. When the Slots-A-Fun Casino is empty of locals and

tourists then it is a very fun place to gamble in Las Vegas. $3.00 Black Jack is the favorite game of

many people in Las Vegas. You may have seen the Palms Casino and Resort on

television. When you are speeding up to the

top layer it looks and feels like you are flying of the edge of the

building onto the roller coaster. The Palms Casino and Resort has been the site of many TV

shows. The roller coaster is fun…to watch. It is a popular spot for

amateur photographers to snap a world class picture. The Luxor Hotel and

Casino of today appears much different then the magnificent building

that was originally there. I assume the

inside of the Palms Casino and Resort is just as beautiful. I have

never been inside the Palms Casino and Resort except for when I see

this Vegas Hotel on television.

The Slots-A-Fun Casino is located on

The Las Vegas Strip. If it is

not a slow night then do not even bother to show up to the

Slots-A-Fun Casino.

New York New York Hotel and Casino

Palms Casino and Resort

In 2007 they replace most of the

Egyptian themed items and decorations. Angelica Bridges starred on Baywatch and is also a favorite

of Playboy readers. I disagree.

The New York New York Hotel and Casino is all of the fun of the real

New York but a lot cheaper. If you do want to see the Strip

you are a very short bus ride away.

Regardless of where you want to gamble

in Las Vegas you can always find something cool, tacky, common, rare,

expensive, cheap, or even dirt cheap. What other gaming property in Las Vegas can

offer you a Slurpee? The fact that I can play video poker with bad

odds and drink blue colored Slurpee’s all day makes the 7-11

convenience stores an awesome Las Vegas gaming property.

times.

While visiting the Luxor Hotel and

Casino make sure you get tickets to the show starring Angelica

Bridges. I wish they would have kept

the Egyptian theme at the Luxor Hotel and Casino. Do not

attend the Slots-A-Fun Casino on a weekend or any other time the

place is busy. If the Aliens

ever come to play poker they will probably come to the Luxor Hotel

and Casino.

Slots-A-Fun Casino

If you visit the Palms Casino and

Resort make sure your bring your camera so you can take a picture of

the Paparazzi who may be there outside snapping pictures of the rich

and famous when they arrive at the Palms Casino and Resort.

At night time the Palms Casino and

Resort is an absolutely gorgeous building. I love the

7-11 stores for gambling. The Gold Spike Hotel and Casino also has a

sports book inside called “Leroy’s Sports book”.

I am a huge fan of the downtown Vegas

properties but this strip property make my list. During peak nights the Slots-A-Fun

Casino is packed with people wanting to play low limit games. Regardless of your budget you can find

somewhere fun and unique to gamble while visiting Las Vegas.

The 7-11 convenience stores in Las

Vegas are everywhere. The appearance is drastically different,.

The Luxor Hotel and Casino has changed from an Egyptian theme to a

corporate owned casino filled with gimmicky adverting. I did once when it was 108 degrees and the

soles on my shoes were soft from the hot asphalt and concrete

literally melting my shoe soles away.

Gold Spike Hotel and Casino

The New York New York Hotel and Casino

was considered a truly amazing architecture and styling casino when

it was first opened. Slots-A-Fun Casino is a fun place to gamble cheaply if you

go there during a slow time. The first is the shape of the

building. (readers or lookers?) The show is adult oriented

so don’t take Paul “Pee Wee” Reubens with you.

If you choose to stay at the Gold Spike

Hotel and Casino during you vacation to Las Vegas you will be well

rewarded with your choice of location. The rich and famous

come to the Palms Casino and Resort to be seen by the middle class

tourists. You can find $1.00 black jack or $1,000 black jack tables.

From the high rollers VIP areas in fancy Vegas Casinos to the smoky

keno rooms with ragged carpet